Ruth Bernhard (1905–2006) was a German-born American photographer known for her studio-based practice of photographing nudes. She studied at the Berlin Academy of Artand later became part of the Modernist West Cast Photographers movement. Her photographs are primarily in black and white and are composed of still lifes and dramatically lit nude figures. Her work focuses on creating abstract shapes and sculptural masses using composition, light, and shadow. She has published several books of her work, and her photographs are in collections at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, among others.