Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520), also Raphael, is an Italian master painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance. He is best known for his Madonnas, frescoes, and his large figure compositions of the Vatican. Born in Urbino, Italy, he gained practical instruction as a member of Pietro Perugino’s workshop. His early work is characterized by serenity and gentleness, but his later Madonnas, painted in Rome, emphasize qualities of movement and grandeur. The School of Athens is considered his most famous fresco, and one of the culminating artworks of the High Renaissance. He was also a significant portraitist in Rome during the first two decades of the 16th century and introduced new types of presentation and psychological situations for his subjects.